The Master and the Fool

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The book Mastery by George Leonard has been recommended to me by many people, including chess grandmaster Maurice Ashley, swimming legend Terry Laughlin, and drumming phenom Dave Elitch.

One of my favorite sections is the epilogue, titled “The Master and the Fool,” which I’ve posted below with permission from Plume, an imprint of The Penguin Publishing Group, a division of Penguin Random House, LLC.

It explores a question: What are the keys to rapid and lifelong learning?

There are many keys, but arguably the most important is found in this five-minute read…

The Master and the Fool

“I want you to tell me how I can be a learner.”

It was not so much a query as a demand, almost a threat. He was a mountain man, with the long black hair, bold moustache and rough-hewn clothing of a nineteenth-century outlaw, one of a breed that lived illegally in the rugged hills of the Los Padres National Wilderness Area along the Big Sur coast of California—a place of buzzards and hawks, mountain lions and wild boar. Having just turned in the final proofs of a book on education (it was in the late 1960s), I had driven four hours south from San Francisco for a weekend of relaxation at Esalen Institute.

As I approached the lodge—a rustic building built at the edge of the Pacific on one of the few areas of flat land between the sea and the mountains of the Los Padres—I heard the sound of conga drums. Inside, the mountain man was sitting at one of the drums, surrounded by eight other people, each also at a drum. He was apparently giving an informal lesson to whoever cared to participate. One of the drums was unoccupied. I pulled up to the unoccupied drum and joined the others, following the instruction as well as I could. When the session ended I started to walk away, but the mountain man came after me, grasped my shoulder, and fixed me with a significant look.

“Man,” he said, “you are a learner.”

I stood there speechless. I’d never met this person, and he certainly had no idea I had just finished a book about learning. My conservative city garb had probably led him to think that I was a complete novice at the conga drum, the instrument of choice of the counterculture, and thus he must have been impressed by my seemingly rapid progress. Still, I was so pleased by his words that I didn’t inform him I’d played before. He proceeded to tell me that he was a sculptor who worked metal with an acetylene torch, and that he was badly stuck and had been for a year; he was no longer a learner. Now he wanted me, a learner in his mind, to come up to his place in the Los Padres, look at his work, and tell him how he could be a learner. He was leaving right away and I could follow him in my car if I wished.

The invitation baffled me, but I realized it was a rare opportunity to visit the forbidden haunts of one of the legendary mountain men of Big Sur, so I immediately accepted. I followed his battered sedan up a steep and tortuous dirt road, then across a mountain meadow to a driveway that was nothing more than two tire tracks through a forest of live oak, madrone, and bay trees. For what seemed a long time, the car lurched and labored steeply upward, coming at last to a clearing near the top of the coast range. In the clearing stood several wooden structures: a two-room cabin, a tool shed, a crude studio for metal sculpture, and something that might have been a chicken or rabbit coop. At one point during my visit, I spotted a slim young woman with flowing blonde hair and a long dress standing like a ghost near the edge of the clearing. He never mentioned her.

The mountain man showed me into a sturdily built cabin with a large front window looking 4,000 feet down to the Pacific, now shining like a sheet of metal in the late afternoon sun. We sat and made disjointed conversation for a while. I found myself somewhat disoriented. But for the presence of several conga drums, we might have been sitting in an early nineteenth-century pioneer’s cabin. It was all like a dream: the unlikely invitation, the rugged drive, the mysterious woman, the expansive gleam of the ocean through the trees.

When the mountain man announced that we would now go and look at his work so that I could tell him how to be a learner, I dumbly followed him out, having no idea of what I could possibly say that would be of any use to him. He walked me through his sculpture chronologically, showing me the point at which he had lost his creative spark, had stopped being a learner. When he finished, he fixed me with his eyes, and repeated his question one more time.

‘Tell me. How can I be a learner?”

My mind went absolutely blank, and I heard myself saying, “It’s simple. To be a learner, you’ve got to be willing to be a fool.”

The mountain man nodded thoughtfully and said “thanks.” There were a few more words, after which I got into my car and went back down the mountain. Several years were to pass before I considered the possibility that my answer was anything more than a part of one of those slightly bizarre, easily forgotten sixties episodes. Still, the time did come when ideas from other places—all sorts of ideas—began to coalesce around my careless words of advice, and I began to see more than a casual relationship between learning and the willingness to be foolish, between the master and the fool. By fool, to be clear, I don’t mean a stupid, unthinking person, but one with the spirit of the medieval fool, the court jester, the carefree fool in the tarot deck who bears the awesome number zero, signifying the fertile void from which all creation springs, the state of emptiness that allows new things to come into being.

The theme of emptiness as a precondition to significant learning shows up in the familiar tale of the wise man who comes to the Zen master, haughty in his great wisdom, asking how he can become even wiser. The master simply pours tea into the wise man’s cup and keeps pouring until the cup runs over and spills all over the wise man, letting him know without words that if one’s cup is already full there is no space in it for anything new. Then there is the question of why young people sometimes learn new things faster than old people; why my teenage daughters, for example, learned the new dances when I didn’t. Was it just because they were willing to let themselves be foolish and I was not?

Or you might take the case of an eighteen-month-old infant learning to talk. Imagine the father leaning over the crib in which his baby son is engaging in what the behaviorist B. F. Skinner calls the free operant; that is, he’s simply babbling various nonsense sounds. Out of this babble comes the syllable da. What happens? Father smiles broadly, jumps up and down with joy, and shouts, “Did you hear that? My son said ‘daddy.’” Of course, he didn’t say “daddy.” Still, nothing is much more rewarding to an eighteen-month-old infant than to see an adult smiling broadly and jumping up and down. So, the behaviorists confirm our common sense by telling us that the probability of the infant uttering the syllable da has now increased slightly.

The father continues to be delighted by da, but after a while his enthusiasm begins to wane. Finally, the infant happens to say, not da, but dada. Once again, father goes slightly crazy with joy, thus increasing the probability that his son will repeat the sound dada. Through such reinforcements and approximations, the toddler finally learns to say daddy quite well. To do so, remember, he not only has been allowed but has been encouraged to babble, to make “mistakes,” to engage in approximations—in short, to be a fool.

But what if this type of permission had not been granted? Let’s rerun the same scene. There’s father leaning over the crib of his eighteen-month-old son. Out of the infant’s babble comes the syllable da. This time, father looks down sternly and says, “No, son, that is wrong! The correct pronunciation is dad-dy. Now repeat after me: Dad-dy. Dad-dy. Dad-dy.

What would happen under these circumstances? If all of the adults around an infant responded in such a manner, it’s quite possible he would never learn to talk. In any case, he would be afflicted with serious speech and psychological difficulties.

If this scenario should seem extreme, consider for a moment the learnings in life you’ve forfeited because your parents, your peers, your school, your society, have not allowed you to be playful, free, and foolish in the learning process. How many times have you failed to try something new out of fear of being thought silly? How often have you censored your spontaneity out of fear of being thought childish? Too bad. Psychologist Abraham Maslow discovered a childlike quality (he called it a “second naivete”) in people who have met an unusually high degree of their potential. Ashleigh Montagu used the term neotany (from neonate, meaning newborn) to describe geniuses such as Mozart and Einstein. What we frown at as foolish in our friends, or ourselves, we’re likely to smile at as merely eccentric in a world-renowned genius, never stopping to think that the freedom to be foolish might well be one of the keys to the genius’s success or even to something as basic as learning to talk.

When Jigoro Kano, the founder of judo, was quite old and close to death, the story goes, he called his students around him and told them he wanted to be buried in his white belt. What a touching story; how humble of the world’s highest-ranking judoist in his last days to ask for the emblem of the beginner! But Kano’s request, I eventually realized, was less humility than realism. At the moment of death, the ultimate transformation, we are all white belts. And if death makes beginners of us, so does life—again and again. In the master’s secret mirror, even at the moment of highest renown and accomplishment, there is an image of the newest student in class, eager for knowledge, willing to play the fool.

And for all who walk the path of mastery, however far that journey has progressed, Kano’s request becomes a lingering question, an ever-new challenge:

Are you willing to wear your white belt?

From Mastery by George Leonard. Published by Plume, an imprint of The Penguin Publishing Group, a division of Penguin Random House, LLC.  Copyright © 1992 by George Leonard.

George Leonard was an American writer, editor, and educator who wrote extensively about education and human potential. He served as president emeritus of the Esalen Institute, past-president of the Association for Humanistic Psychology, and co-founder of Integral Transformative Practice International.

The Tim Ferriss Show is one of the most popular podcasts in the world with more than 900 million downloads. It has been selected for "Best of Apple Podcasts" three times, it is often the #1 interview podcast across all of Apple Podcasts, and it's been ranked #1 out of 400,000+ podcasts on many occasions. To listen to any of the past episodes for free, check out this page.

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23 Replies to “The Master and the Fool”

  1. The free operant concept is so key in the creative space. Ego protections are the shackles constraining free flight. Fabulous book and a great excerpt.. thank you for the reminder TF.

    1. Kerry, may I quote you? “Ego protections are the shackles constraining free flight”
      It’s right on the money!

  2. In the depths of self questioning, this story opened my eyes and heart. Paths sought are right in front; be foolish. There is your gift…you.

  3. Love the Swimming edition with Phelps and Hackett.

    Bonus for you knowing George v Leonard. George’s book The Silent Pulse was crucial in the 70s.

    Thanks for that story. Off to find my w white belt.

    Keep growing.

    Timothy Colman

  4. If only school systems worked to this logic and encouraged play, exploration and learning above getting the answer ‘right’.

  5. Great message in this post. I spoke about this zen idea a few weeks ago in a podcast episode (in a shorter version-I like your long version). Thanks for sharing!

  6. Freedom to be foolish sounds the same as the freedom to make mistakes. Second chances are not freely given, especially in formal education settings.
    I would love to learn how to “shoot” (hit a metal boule or ball with another boule from a distance of 6 to 10 meters) in the French game of pétanque. I have tried different techniques gleaned from YouTube videos, but I have not been able to learn a form that gives consistent results. Consistency is possible because many French players seem to be able to shoot very well. If you have the time and interest, I would love to see how you would deconstruct this activity. There is a pétanque club in Austin [Moderator: link removed.]. You learned Japanese Horseback Archery and I think you may enjoy pétanque. I think Japanese Horseback Archery is far more complicated that pétanque shooting. Thank you from Oregon.

  7. Ever learning, ever asking = freedom. Even if I don’t learn anything, I still want that freedom for myself. Love and Light. Joy

  8. DSS: somehow our upbringing is not encouraging this, especially in countries with tough economies. There is no room for mistakes, for changing your mind, only for certainty. However, that only creates a system of fear of failure. Thanks for this read and let’s find the white belt!

  9. I like the ending relating to martial arts. There is a concept called shoshin, or beginner’s mind. In martial arts and in life, it’s important to always have a beginner’s mind to learn and become wiser.

  10. Hello Mr. Ferriss,

    I hope you are doing great!

    My father’s birthday is coming up, and he is a HUGE fan your books, especially “Tools of Titans”. He has a whole collection of your books, and he loves to pour over them. Would it be possible for you to perhaps mail him a birthday card? It would make him so so happy! His name is Steven. You can email me for the address (since I gave the email).

    Thank you so much for all of your help!

    All the best,


  11. Wow this is very applicable, I find myself wanting to be sure about my real estate investment skills but maybe I need to quit worrying about what I KNOW and embrace what I’m not so sure of.

    1. Follow up to my own post…After years of work I finally achieved a black belt in Tae Kwon Do. I was fairly proud and then one of the instructors (5th degree black belt) said “NOW the real learning begins”. That was eye opening.

  12. Thanks for posting this! Here is another book you may be interested in. Its called The Art of Mastery: Principles of Effective Interaction; By Peter Ralston.

  13. As a pilot, I know a thing or two about mastering a skill. It takes dedication, hard work, and a lot of practice to become an expert in the cockpit. But even I have to admit that this book “Mastery” by George Leonard has me feeling a bit out of my depth. I mean, a mountain man who wants to be a learner? That’s a tall order, even for someone who’s flown around the world a few times.

    But wait, what’s that chattering in the background? It’s my imaginary monkey friend, interrupting my thoughts as usual. “Hey, don’t worry about it,” he says. “Just follow your own path and let your inner monkey shine! And if all else fails, just cling onto my tail and we’ll fly off into the sunset together.”

    Well, I suppose my monkey friend has a point. Maybe it’s time to let go of my fears and embrace the unknown. Here’s hoping that “Mastery” can help me do just that.

  14. Just finished this book based on this recommendation, and it’s as enlightening as suggested. This section really resonates. It’s a compelling narrative that challenges us to embrace the humility of learning, no matter our expertise, reinforcing the idea that being open to ‘foolishness’ is where true growth begins.